Aging and Your Cell Membrane

You can say that humans have a pretty odd relationship when it comes to the idea of aging. Especially in the current age of elective surgeries and injections. Fat makes up a lot of our body and is vital for every single cell. But how do fatty acids play a role when it comes to ensuring that our cells stay healthy and functional for long?

How can certain chemicals and fatty acids prevent aging?

The Membrane and Fatty Acids

At BodyBio, the investigation into aging starts at the cell membrane. The membrane is the outer shell of the cell, which has two fatty acids facing each other. This forms not only a protective barrier around the cell, but also has a whole communications network on the inside (Hameroff et al, 2002). While the outer membrane may be laxer when it comes to letting in other chemicals and proteins, the inner layer is practically impenetrable. This is because all molecules that the cell needs can go through using special transporters. This makes the membrane a great line of defense for the cell as a whole, that would otherwise be bombarded with random molecules.

In fact, without this layer of fat between the cell and the outside world, no life as we know it would exist. That is how important the membrane is to the functioning of the cell. This is best understood through Peter Michell’s work on the cell’s energy cycle. He theorized that the membrane is the key to understanding why only certain particles could pass thropugh the membrane (Mitchell 1961). Due to this, the membrane can work as a way to send signals between it and the other parts of the cell. But how exactly does the membrane work like a network?

How the Membrane Works as the Cell’s Brain

The cell’s membrane is located on the outer end of the cell, which means that it is in the perfect place to get information about the outside world. For instance, that is one of the ways in which the cells get oxygen as a lung cell, or pump if they are a heart cell. Many believe that the DNA is the thing that holds all the cells together, but this does not seem to be the case. A cell can survive for months, even after the DNA is extracted from it. Yet, if you fracture the membrane, the cell immediately dies. It cannot sustain itself without its layer of protection and information.

This is how vital the membrane is for every single cell in your body. In ‘The Biology of Belief’ Bruce Lipton claims that the DNA is like the hard drive, while the membrane acts as the keyboard. Because although DNA holds all the vital information, it cannot act on it without the membrane’s instruction.

The fatty acids that make up about 60% of the dry weight of the brain are vital to how the brain itself works. The brain is able to communicate via neurons precisely because of these membranes. Making the brain dependent on the individual fats, known as phospholipids, to function and thrive. But what does all this have to do with aging, and can anything be done to prevent cells from dying?

Fatty Acids and Aging

So far we have learned about how every cell needs a membrane to thrive. We have also learned that the membrane is vital to every working structure inside of the body. But what about when that body starts to break down? What role do these fatty acids play in that?

Well, one of the most important changes when it comes to aging is how the ratio of certain phospholipids and chemicals change. The ratio seems to be between the chemical phosphatidylcholine (PC), and both lipids sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol. As we age, PC decreases while SM and Cholesterol both increase (Schacter et al., 1983). This, in turn, affects every single cell inside the body, such as blood cells, neurons, bone cells, immune cells, and more. This makes aging an issue with bodily balance, otherwise known as homeostasis.

One main example of this is the fact that the aorta and arterial wall shows a PC/SM difference 6 times greater than in other parts of the body. For instance, SM can become up to 80% of the total phospholipids in an advanced lesion found in the aorta. (Yechiel et al.,1985), (Yechiel and Barenholz, 1985), (Yechiel et al.,1986), (Yechiel and Barenholz, 1986; Barenholz 2004), (Cohen and Barenholz, 1984). This shows that health problems can arise as SM and cholesterol increases in our body, and as PC decreases.

This balance has also been seen using rat heart cells. For instance, in one study (Yechiel 1985a.b, 1986; Muscona-Amir 1986), rat heart cells were used to see how PC may benefit the heart. The cells were separated, with one group getting PC and two others not getting any at all. They all started off beating at 160 beats per minute, or BPM. After over two weeks, the two that did not get PC slowed down their beating rate to 20 BPM or even stopped. Then they were all administered PC again. Within 24 hours, all the of sample’s BPM went back up to 160. This shows that aging might be attributed directly by the body’s absolute need for PC.

If you were to search for PC in the medical literature, you would find over 37,000 results. Within these were many other papers detailing the power of this chemical. They have shown that this chemical can help prevent cell death, and prevent the cell from aging.

So in the end, the body runs on a balance. Aging starts due to the body not being having PC and SM in balance. It is believed that it could somehow maintain this homeostasis, we can potentially prevent the body from aging altogether. But it seems like the research is still a long way away from making that a modern reality.


The highest concentration of Mg, Na, and K on the market

Today is a big day for BodyBio

In 1995 we embarked on a mission to create a comprehensive range of vitamins and supplements we couldn’t find anywhere else on the market. We started off with the development of a targeted blood chemistry analysis and epigenetic testing to investigate the most complex disorders in the world. To achieve this, we developed a medical software program that would produce a list of required nutrients based on an individual’s blood chemistry results. Scientific research and investigation into the human body was and always has been the key driver of everything BodyBio has created.

Since then we have grown into an international business impacting the lives of people all over the globe while still maintaining the research, development and manufacturing of our products in the same building we started in over 20 years ago. While outsourcing and overseas manufacturing might have made sense from a financial perspective, our core values of being “researched-backed and quality driven” means that our products will always be made in-house to ensure that the quality of our products is never in question. We are a family-owned and operated business and to us, nothing is more important than the health of every person that joins the BodyBio family.

After 20 years of building relationships with our customers and physicians worldwide, we decided that it was the right time bring BodyBio products to more people with the goal of being able to positively impact more lives around the world.

So what will this look like? You may have noticed when you got to our website that a lot has changed. To start, we have a beautiful new website and e-commerce store focused on making it easier to find and understand what products you need. Per our commitment to transparency and research, we also have redesigned from the ground up our blog and research portal giving you more extensive access to health news and research. We are also excited about our brand new logo and logomark. Our new logomark represents what we are all about, taking care of the trillions of cells in your body. Last, when you order today some of our flagship products such as BodyBio PC, Balance Oil, Sodium Butyrate and E-lyte, you’ll notice in addition to some new packaging that will arrive at your home, a total redesign of our bottle and labels.

What’s important is that this rebrand will in no way impact the methodologies and values that have guided us to this point. As we continue to grow, our cornerstone will always be to let science and research guide our product development. We will never put profit ahead of the best interests of our patients and customers, and will never compromise the quality of our products. This is a promise.

What to Expect Moving Forward

More news and information available to you. Whether it be our weekly blog posts, online webinars or videos and in-depth research articles, we are excited to bring to you more information that will help guide you on how best to improve your health all the way down to the cellular level. We will also slowly start to phase in new labels and bottling to the rest of our line of products over the next 12-months so the entire brand line represents the new look of BodyBio.

Finally, we are very excited to announce that we have expanded our products innovations team that will be focused on bringing some exciting new products to you in 2019 and beyond. Expect updates on our roadmap through our blog and email – we think you’ll be equally excited about what we’re developing in our in-house lab.

Thank you so much for being part of the BodyBio family. We are very excited about what this new rebrand will mean for the future of BodyBio and our family of customers and physicians all over the world.


Ed Kane
Founder, BodyBio

A Professional Athlete on Nutrition

‘Recovery’ is the focal point of my last post, but this week I’ll delve into nutritional strategies in the life of an elite endurance athlete. It’s safe to say that nutrition and energy availability play a significant role in adaptation, growth and success in preparation for performance. Without the proper nutritional and supplemental intake, an athlete can become vulnerable to injury, illness and counteract all the hard work put into a specific training session or cycle.

I recently learned that this was, in fact, one of the possible contributing factors to my recent diagnosis of a stress fracture. My nutritional support team had a look at two-weeks’ worth of food intake aligned with training sessions and found that I was operating in a deficit. Although I generally felt that I was getting in enough carbs, proteins, fats, etc., it turned out that I was continually missing the mark to offset the physical demands and training loads. The deficit may have been small at the end of the day, but over time, all those days add up to a larger, more impactful loss. Take a look at this food-log example pre-stress fracture:

Although this generally meets most daily nutritional needs, it still does not cover the calories burned over the course of a 4.5–5-hour training day in addition to the calories burned by my resting metabolic rate. Doubling the amount of sports drink, upping the morning orange juice, and adding in a peanut-butter & jelly sandwich or cereal bar mid-ride are all strategies to help offset some of the deficit and actually help the body recover quicker for the next session on tap. And while a PB&J might not be the ideal food for a non-endurance athlete, I often rely on these foods because of how easy they convert to sugar and energy during a training session.

Likewise, it’s also important to consider supplement value-adds for optimal vitamin absorption. As a female endurance athlete, iron, vitamin C and vitamin D are some of the most foundational to maintain health under training stress. I also find Calcium and BodyBio’s PC to be valuable in enhancing my bone and cellular regeneration, especially in recovery from injury. It’s challenging to get all of the nutrients and energy in during a day so I find it helpful with some assistance by trusted supplements.

Timing of intake, nutrient density foods, supplements and flexibility around managing food strategies are all key components in the creation of a healthy, balanced & fortified diet as an elite athlete. It’s important to alter your diet relative to the physical demands of the day — whether you’re an athlete, working a desk job, or an active retiree. I know I’m continually working on improving my strategies in order to optimize those 1%-ers that make all the difference in performance on the day. And I’m a strong believer that everyone can do the same in order to optimize those 1%-ers in life!

The Nerve of That Signal

FO-powerlinesNerves carry signals throughout the body initiating activity in the body and brain. What has been slow to grasp is the role of the cell membrane in carrying those signals. The membrane is the covering and protection of our nerves. It also houses (embraces) the electrolyte enzymes in its thin encasing sliver. The enzymes set up the metabolic environment in the body to enable signaling to occur. Nerves can be viewed similarly to the wiring in our homes. Both deliver energy to do work. No wires no signal; no membrane, also no signal, but of course, no cell as well.

Signal propagation in the body is a bit different than sending power to our homes but a wiring is necessary for both. The nerve is a specialized cell but it has all the standard cellular components of all cells, however, it is made up of a vast network of axons and branches that carry the signals managing our thoughts and actions. The signals travel on those specialized limbs which are endowed with the same structural membrane that encase all our cells throughout the body and the brain. In the nerves the membrane is the roadway for the message.

Producing electricity for our homes involves huge rotating generators that wipe off electrons and chase them back and forth in the power grid which we then tap into to run our homes and offices. For our body we use a far more efficient system to build the electrical force – charge separation,

To maintain charge separation (potassium on the inside, sodium on the outside), we use a large amount of energy estimated to be ~half of all we produce. It’s quite a system. There are thousands of sodium-potassium pumps on the membrane of every cell with the role of collecting 3 sodium ions from the inside of the cell – dumping them out – picking up 2 potassium ions from the blood stream and taking them in. Each ion channel engineers that hundreds of times per micro second. The result is a high differential on either side of the membrane of every cell, potassium on the inside – sodium on the outside.

To initiate a signal a sodium ion channel (a gang of them all at once) opens and lets a flood of Na ions in. Like opening the flood gates because thousands of sodium ions rush in per microsecond through each one. The result is a change in polarity that starts the signal propagation down the nerve so we can wiggle our nose or blink an eye.

The juice to run our lights and TVs travels on a copper wire surrounded by a plastic cover for insulation. Not so in our bodies, our signals dance on our insulating membrane as the channels open and close in rapid sequence. Our signals do not move down the center of our nerves; they travel on the outside skin, the membrane. The actual signal may be a rapid change of ph but the signal actually occurs on the membrane.

Mitochondria are tiny energy generators in every cell that produce ATP, our tiny batteries. It’s a process called “electron chain transfer”. It’s also referred to as the “citric acid cycle”, or “Krebs cycle”, from Hans Kreb, 1937. The first one is more graphic since an electron is moved forward in a chain-like transfer. There are ~2-500 mitochondria in every cell, 20,000 or more in a heart cell. The chain transfer cycle occurs inside the mitochondrion with special molecules that sit (of course) on the membrane; they take an electron (-) from a hydrogen atom and keep it occupied while flipping the proton (+) on the other side of the membrane thereby separating the electron from the proton. The electrons (-) all remain on the inside, in the matrix of the mitochondria, while the protons (+) collect on the outside of the membrane. That separation of using the membrane as the insulator is our power grid in miniature. Accumulating the protons (+s) becomes the force to do work.

The end product is energy (ATP) and water. The mitochondria employ the membrane as the key player for the production of energy, which is a far more elegant electrical system than what we use.

FO-cellmembraneAll membranes are composed of molecules called phospholipids (PLs) with each having two fatty acid tails. It looks like a double sticked lollypop. The tails are strings of carbon some of which we can make and some come only from the diet. The double sticks, the fatty acid strings, are either saturated or unsaturated and come in a wide variety, but the really important ones are the poly-unsaturated, the omega 6 and omega 3 fatty acids. They are essential, meaning they must be in our diet. Those EFAs, the essential fatty acids, are the basic building blocks of the membrane and the beginning of life. The truth is finally out, we’re all made of fat.

article1-PC-moleculeWherever we look, the star of the show is the membrane, a thin sliver of fat surrounding every cell. It separates the inside of the cell, the cytosol, from the outside. Its size and shape is identical in all of life, including the cells of animals, plants, bacteria, nerves, etc. It’s composed mostly of fats and lipids that make it a perfect insulator, permitting the vital differential charge which the cell uses to either send a signal or to get out of here quick, there’s danger ahead. The membrane may be the skin on the perimeter of the cell but it is truly the center of life.

FO-poleclimberNeurologists are well aware of the electron chain transfer and the production of energy in the mitochondria. They also know that all signals are propelled down the nerve on the membrane for thought, pleasure and pain, basically for everything we think or do. Sending the signal on its way is only possible if the membrane enzyme complex has first done its job for charge separation. The cell membrane never sleeps – working continuously to be ready to propagate the next signal on command. Every doctor and especially every neurologist are well aware, or should be, of these basic characteristics.

If so — is it a correct proposition that the first order of the day would be to feed the right EFAs into our bodies — and if we did, would that enhance the health of the membranes of our neurons? YES – without question, they are constantly rebuilding. Would that in turn influence signal transmission? YES – of course. How about memory? YES again.
Then why isn’t the health of the membrane the first consideration, the first choice of treatment for all neurological disorders that plague society such as Parkinson’s, MS, Fibromyalgia, Alzheimer’s, epilepsy, palsy, etc.? Why indeed!

The information contained in this web site is for educational purposes only and is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Inclusion here does not imply any endorsement or recommendation.  Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified medical provider for all medical problems prior to starting any new regiment.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
These products are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.

PC: The Fountain of Health

Phosphatidylcholine is a wunderbar nutrient – yet, it remains an enigma. At 6 syllables it’s a bit of a tongue twister, easier to say PC. In Europe, it’s even longer, Polyenylphosphatidylcholine, 10 syllables, which abbreviates to PPC. Both mean exactly the same. Both refer to the same wonder nutrient. While most all supplements such as anti-oxidants, B- vitamins, minerals, pro-biotics, CoQ-10, electrolytes, digestive enzymes, etc., have excellent nutritional value and contribute to better health, few rank on a level with PC – in fact – none do.

So – why is it that PC is still a relatively modest player in the world of nutrients and natural medicine, while the research literature on PC is awash with positive studies? Why, in the normal evolutionary process of recognition, has PC failed to obtain its rightful role? There’s a story underlying it that needs to be told. Somehow, a glitch on this side of the Atlantic essentially sabotaged its climb up the ladder. About the mid 90’s, our illustrious North American edible oil producers made a decision which muddied the waters and threw a wrench into our wonder nutrient, however, that decision was a profitable one, for them. The history begins with the pressing of the oil from the seeds, such as sunflower, canola, corn, flax, etc., but mainly soybeans, the largest seed oil produced in the world. After pressing, hydrating and harvesting the oil and the seed protein, one of the products left over is a gummy substance called lecithin, found in all cells.

That sticky substance became an important ingredient in foods such as spreads, margarines, chocolates, cosmetics, etc. Nutritionally, it contained PC, so there was also an effort to introduce it as a supplement. The concentrated lecithin was combined with oil, encapsulated in bulk and sold to the vitamin companies who repacked it under their own label. Somehow, in the ensuing effort, someone in charge had the bright idea to call it – Phosphatidylcholine, instead of Lecithin, which is what it really was. The ruling established was this: if the PC content in the lecithin was at least 30% – it could be called Phosphatidylcholine. That turned out to be the ultimate monkey wrench for our wonder nutrient. Soybean lecithin is a complex mix containing ~65-75% phospholipids together with triglycerides and smaller amounts of sterols and carbohydrates. The major phospholipid is phosphatidylcholine, including phosphatidylethanolamine and inositol-containing phosphatides. That singular decision, to name lecithin PC, was clearly a gross biochemical error. It’s just not done in the realms of science because it’s not scientifically accurate. The confusion that followed has been with us to this day with products being marketed and sold as PC regardless of the fact that they are not PC.

Even though it is a component in the lecithin mix, PC and its membrane partner phospholipids, P-ethanolamine, P-inositoI, and Phosphatidic Acid, because of digestion, cannot make it through the gut intact. The lipase enzymes in the gut disassemble all oils which include phospholipids and triglycerides. Gut enzymes, such as proteases and amylases digest proteins and carbohydrates in the same manner as lipases do to the oils, they cut them apart. Only the basic components are allowed through, not the whole PC molecule.

To obtain PC along with the other PLs, which every cell membrane needs, those parts must be created from scratch or reconstituted from the digested components, which young and healthy cells can easily do. For aging or diseased cells, it’s another story. For PC, and the other PLs in lecithin to become valuable nutrients, they must first be separated from the raw lecithin, an expensive complex process, which only a small group of nutrition companies have succeeded in doing. Once separated, PC and its associate phospholipids become miscible in water – repeat – they dissolve in water, enabling them to make the trip through the gut – intact. Only then can PC perform its membrane enhancing wonders as we will see in the following Israeli studies.

Presently, as far as we know, the only companies that have succeeded to separate the phosphatides from lecithin are BodyBio, American Lecithin, and Essentiale Forte®, sold in pharmacies in Europe. All other vitamin companies continue to market the misnamed capsules under their own label, which, will not succeed in providing any PC, and which recently, has been shown to be a possible cause of atherosclerosis (Wang 2011). Imagine – how many people have heard about the wonder nutrient PC, searched on Google, and bought the misnamed lecithin capsules in shops, or on line? How many of those funny capsules with zero value have been consumed worldwide in over a half a century as a result of that labeling loophole? And it’s still going on, unfortunately, to the detriment of all those who, as yet, don’t know the difference. Talk about selling snake oil…

So, why is PC such a wonder nutrient and why is it important in maintaining health and longevity? Are we destined to succumb to illness as we age and lose PC? Our cell membranes naturally contain PC and SM (sphingomyelin), both are phospholipids and both have a choline head group. However, there is a shift that occurs in the composition of the membrane with the growth of SM and a fall in PC levels. SM is a combination of ceramide and PC, wherein ceramide combines with PC and absconds with PC’s choline head, enabling the formation of SM. The relationship between those two choline phospholipids in mammalian plasma membranes is critical and directly affects cell function. This was demonstrated most clearly by Professor Yechezkel Barenholz and his colleagues in 1985.

In a dramatic study, Dr. Barenholz, head of biochemistry at Hebrew University in Jerusalem, reported on the changes of PC and SM in the lipid composition of rat myocytes (heart cells). They were able to extract rat hearts and separate the myocytes, the heart cells, and keep the cells alive in Petri dishes in their lab with a nourishing culture. After a day or two, by themselves, the myocytes would congregate together and begin to beat in unison. They did what heart cells are designed to do. They beat – and they did it at ~160 beats/minute. The scientists measured the beats as well as the PC and SM content in the cells and watched the decline of the PC/ SM ratio in the first three days from 20% SM to ~33% SM — then, over the next 14 days, from 33% to about 50% SM. What occurred in the culture was a steady loss of PC, replaced by Sphingomyelin, from 20% to 50% in 14 days, accompanied by a steady decrease in heart beats. Between days 7 and 12 in culture, the beats/minute fell from a vibrant 160, down to a near lifeless 20 beats/minute. On day 16, they added PC into their Petri dishes, and in one day, the myocytes reverted back to their healthy rate of 160 beats per/minute. In just 24 hours, they went from near death back to vibrant heart cells. This was also accompanied by a normalization of seven vital enzymes (Yechiel 1985a, 1985b). Simply changing their diet by adding PC into their cultures, reversed the rise in SM and brought life back to the near dead myocytes, a dramatic example of the wonders of PC.

However, Professor Barenholz delved even deeper. In 1989, he was awarded a US patent #4,812,314, on the use of PC for increasing male longevity and fertility. Dr. Barenholz, a recognized world leader in lipid technology, together with colleagues, focused on the changes that occur with cell aging, principally on the loss of PC as with the myocyte example, which showed a rise in the levels of SM, and a concomitant rise in cholesterol (CH) (Barenholz 1982, 1984). The scenario of lowered PC and raised SM is especially pronounced in senescent or diseased tissues. For example, plasma membranes associated with the aorta and arterial wall show a 6-fold decrease in PC/SM ratio with aging. SM is also increased in several diseases, such as the hereditary Niemann-Pick Disease, and in toxic exposures. In atherosclerosis, the leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide, the SM content can be as high as 70-80% of the total phospholipids in advanced aortic lesion (Barenholz 1982, 1984). To put this in context, Kummerow et al, University of Illinois, Urbana, analyzed the SM content in umbilical cord, and discovered that it was ~10% (Kummerow 2001). In essence, we start life with ~10% SM and 90% PC, and thereafter SM increases, and as recorded, with disturbing cellular outcomes. Kummerow further has shown that arteriole obstructions are directly related to the change of PC and SM reaching above 45-48% SM, resulting in a rise of arteriole sclerosis and death, similar to the findings of Barenholz fifteen years prior. Type in ‘sphingomyelin atherosclerosis’ on Medline, and you will get 228 studies from around the world, corroborating Barenholz and Kummerow on SM and cardiac disease. Clearly, a loss of PC is an unhealthy event. Thus, maintaining the level of PC in the cell membrane as we age is vital to cellular health and longevity. It may even be the sought after fountain of youth we are looking for.

The 1989 invention involves administering PC liposomes as an intravenous injection (parenterally, not orally as used earlier), to an individual (animal or human) to reverse age-related changes in the lipid composition of organs and tissues, such as heart muscle cells and red blood cells, by an infusion of egg PC as a lipid exchange (egg PC is molecularly similar to soy PC, the fatty acids may alter, but not the molecule). Since the aging process in heart muscle is characterized by a decrease in PC, with a coinciding increase in SM and cholesterol, the PC liposomes have the ability to promote an exchange of PC for SM and CH within the membrane. Adding PC liposomes into the blood induces an exchange of PC within the heart cell membranes and reverses the membrane concentration of SM and CH. This would also occur in membranes throughout the body, including the brain.

An important therapeutic application of the invention is increasing an individual’s ability to withstand cardiac stress. The utility of the treatment was shown in laboratory animals following congestive heart failure or serious damage to the heart, the red cells showed about a two-fold decline in PC/SM between ages 3 and 18 months. This was reversed by three PC liposome treatments within nine days with PC SUVs administered to 18 month aged rats, whereby there was an increase in the ratio nearly sevenfold. The treated 18 month old male rats were able to maintain blood pressure under stress about 50% longer than untreated rats. There were several additional studies, however, the most impressive were the next two on longevity and sex.

Effect of Treatment on Longevity with PC SUVs
(SUVs are small spherical membrane enclosures, cellular look-a-likes)

This study examines the effect of PC treatment on animal longevity. The rats tested were 30 month old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Since Sprague-Dawley rats normally die between the ages of about 24-30 months, the rats tested showed a dramatic increase in longevity. A test group of six rats were each given PC-SUVs, prepared as an IV, at a dose of between 0.5 and 1 g PC liposome lipid through the tail vein, and similarly dosed after one week, and then every two months thereafter. A second control group of same-age male rats was similarly injected with saline water on the same dose schedule, 2 doses a week apart, then one dose every 2 months, until the animal died of natural causes. The 6 animals in the control group had an average age at death of ~34 months. Of the PC treated animals, 2 were sacrificed at 44 months, 1 at 45 months, and 3 at 48 months, giving an average age at death of about 46 months, however all of the treated animals were sacrificed (killed), so, the actual length of survival remains unknown. Even so, this equates to a substantial life extension, approximately 33% in the animals treated.

Effect of PC-SUV Treatment on Sexual Competence/ Virility
It is known that sexual function in male rats declines with age. If males 30 months of age or older are housed with younger, fertile females, many have fewer litters, and the actual litter count is lower than would be born if the same females had been with young males. To test the effect of PC liposome treatment on sexual function, a group of 10 rats, each 34-36 months old (close to or near death), were treated with egg PC-SUVs every three days for six days (a total of three doses) with 0.5 to 1 gm lipid per animal through the tail vein with the untreated animals received just sterile saline over the same period. Nine days after the first injection, the animals were each placed in a cage with 3 female Sprague-Dawley rats 5 to 6 months old. The single male and 3 females stayed together for l to 3 weeks, or even more, ~7 weeks, after which the males were removed. Only 1 of the 3 females in contact with untreated males for the single week produced litters, and this increased to about 2 of the 3 females that were able to stay together for 7 weeks. In all cases, litter sizes were less than 10. With treated males, about 2 of the 3 females produced litters with 1 week of contact, and virtually all of the females littered with 3 weeks of contact. Litter sizes were the normal 10-14 animals. Thus, sexual performance and virility was substantially greater in the animals who received PC. Something to consider if conception has been difficult – PC.

Earlier, I indicated the three oral PC products with acceptable quality, which requires additional explanation. PC from BodyBio, American Lecithin and Essentiale are all miscible (water dissolving) and efficacious. However, there is recent research on mitochondria energy that is noteworthy. In 2012-13 there were a number of studies on mitochondria and ETC (electron transport chain). Production of ATP, which initiates on the inner membrane of mitochondria, is newly recognized to be dependent on PE (phosphatidylethanolamine) – not on PC (Böttinger, Joshi, 2012, Tasseva 2013). PE is generally ~half the concentration of PC in cell membranes; however, the dynamics responsible for the separation of protons that drive the production of ATP, sit on the inner membrane of the mitochondria, and are enshrouded with a predominance of PE for the ETC chemistry to play out. BodyBio PC contains both PC and PE, whereas Phos Chol® (and/or Nutrasal®) from American Lecithin, and Forte® contain
only PC.

The results of Professor Barenholz and his colleagues in demonstrating the overwhelming, and mostly hidden results of PC, were performed over a quarter of a century ago, and are nothing short of ‘remarkable’. Dr. Barenholz used IV egg PC, which, to our knowledge, has not been commercially duplicated. However, he used oral PC liposomes as a food in the myocyte petri dishes and witnessed the myocytes recovery, which was admirable, even shocking. If PC is produced correctly, which BodyBio PC is, there is every reason to expect it to be the Super Star nutritional supplement. Maintaining sexual activity and disease-free life as we age has been a universal dream. Having experienced the life-saving, life-promoting qualities of PC with thousands of doctors and their patients has been a fascinating healing journey for all of us at BodyBio. We invite you to join us at and begin your BodyBio PC journey towards better health. Also, take a look at the video on PC and cancer – “An Amazing Story”.

The information contained in this web site is for educational purposes only and is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Inclusion here does not imply any endorsement or recommendation.  Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified medical provider for all medical problems prior to starting any new regiment.


*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
These products are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.

The Unusual Development of E-Lyte Balanced Electrolyte

The formulation of E-Lyte Balanced Electrolyte began 25 years ago for the purpose of creating a drinking version of Ringer’s Solution. In effect, a diluted solution of E-Lyte (normally 16:1) could be used as an oral replacement in stressful health situations if IV Ringer’s was not available. IV Ringer’s also involves inserting a needle into the vein and dripping in an IV solution of the contents, water and electrolytes. In general, medical emergency care in hospitals world wide usually involve electrolyte replacement. Both Ringer’s and E-Lyte have equal mille equivalents (similar electrolyte concentrations) of the all important electrolytes. However, the production of IV Ringer’s solution is a pharmaceutical product regulated by the FDA. In critical situations, IV Ringer’s may be the only way to get the necessary fluids back into a patient, however it requires the experienced care of a professional to carefully insert that needle. If the individual can drink fluids, E-Lyte is a perfect substitute and has been used by many physicians for over 20 years with the same excellent results, even within a hospital environment. If the need was to arise ElyteSport could also qualify for the same critical applications.

Essentially, both E-Lyte formulas and Ringer’s have the ability to stabilize individuals with mild or severe electrolyte deficiencies. There are many drinks that are sold under the guise of containing electrolytes. However the concentration of electrolytes is far below the formula of E-Lyte , or ElyteSport, both of which are also Sugar-Free. Just imagine the use of a sugary drink such as Gatorade, or Pepsi, or even Coke, which do contain electrolytes, being used in a critical life threatening situation. We could not imagine a doctor prescribing any of those, or even considering it.

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Dec;17(4):623-51
Diagnosis and management of electrolyte emergencies
Weiss-Guillet EM, Takala J , Jakob SM.
Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Inselpital, University Hospital Bern, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland.

Electrolyte and fluid imbalances are disorders frequently observed in critical care patients. In many instances patients are asymptomatic, but they may also present with neurological alterations, severe muscle weakness, nausea and vomiting or cardiovascular emergencies. Therefore, a pathophysiological understanding of these disorders is necessary for initiating an appropriate therapy. After a precise history-including drug prescriptions-has been obtained from the patient or his/her relatives, determination of the hydration status of the patient and measurement of acid-base status, plasma and urine osmolality and electrolytes are the first steps in the assessment of the disease. Once a diagnosis has been established, great attention has to be paid to the rate at which the disorder is corrected because this-if inappropriate-may cause more severe damage to the patient than the disease itself. This chapter addresses the initial diagnostic and therapeutic steps of the most common electrolyte emergencies.

The information contained in this web site is for educational purposes only and is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Inclusion here does not imply any endorsement or recommendation. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified medical provider for all medical problems prior to starting any new regiment.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
These products are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.

Cardiovascular Disease: What’s Choline Got to Do With It?

Our Answer to the 2011 Study in Nature ‘Gut flora metabolism of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease’

Phosphatidyl Choline (PC) is the largest of the phospholipids that comprise the membrane of our cells. PC is also prominent in egg and soy lecithin. While PC may be the largest of the phosphatides in lecithin there are other principle phospholipids, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (PE), phosphatidyl-inositol (PI), phosphatidyl-serine and phosphatidic acid that together, constitute a higher concentration in lecithin than does PC. Soybeans are the principle source of commercial lecithin, and lecithin is the most important by-product of the soy oil processing industry because of its many applications in foods, cosmetics and industrial products. Lecithin is also available as a dietary supplement in two forms: as granular lecithin which contains ~12% PC (calcium phosphate as a flow agent), and in a concentrated form called triple lecithin at ~35% PC in capsules fluidized with soy oil (Wood and Allison 1981). While lecithin has been on the health food scene for over a half century, somehow, it picked up the perception of being called phosphatidylcholine. Many researchers used the two interchangeably as if they were the same. They are not. Lecithin is not PC, and while PC is the largest phosphatide in lecithin, technically, it is only a chemical component of lecithin. Oddly, no one reverses it by saying PC when referring to lecithin.

In April, 2011 in an article in Nature, Gut flora of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease, Wang et al wrote that “Foods rich in the lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC, also called lecithin)* which predominantly include eggs, milk, liver, red meat, poultry, shell fish and fish, are believed to be the major dietary sources for choline”. Note the age-old error again. However, confusing PC and lecithin pales in comparison to the egregious characterization in the title saying that “phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease”. We must presume the authors to be knowledgeable of the long and voluminous history of PC as the largest phospholipid component of our cellular membranes and especially as a nutrient with its quite exceptional history in alleviating heart health disorders specifically cardiovascular disease. The title ‘Gut flora of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease’ completely disregards the scientific history of PC and casts a disturbing and untrue image of a highly valuable nutrient with a long history of lowering cholesterol and successful treatment of atherosclerosis, (Cho BH 2011, Navab M 2003, Chung BH 2005, Hajj Hassan H 2005, Koizumi J 1988, Ke Y 1996, Ovesen L 1985). The title could be correct if lecithin was used, which if intended, should have been so stated.

The disturbing title further calls in question the veracity of what appears to be significant scientific information. The implication of PC as potentially dangerous is simply wrong; however, if lecithin was used, the study becomes of significant value for shedding light on the difficulty of using lecithin as a nutrient. While there have been a large number of studies over the last 50 years using lecithin as a source for PC, the effort to achieve medical benefits have been plagued with mixed results, while the reverse of using phosphatidylcholine has consistently maintained positive medical results particularly in international studies. Research and clinical experience has revealed that PC is possibly the most prestigious nutrient of all (Yechiel and Barenholtz 1985, Cui and Howling 2002).

* The authors again make the mistake of referring to PC as Lecithin.

Rhone Poulanc, in its brochure for Lipostabil, lists 197 references for oral and i.v. administration of PC for hyperlipoproteinemia and atherosclerosis. Gundermann KJ, PhD, MD, in “The Essential Phospholipids as a Membrane Therapeutic” 1993, has 776 referenced studies in his technical manual which covers the use of PC in toxicology, hemorrheology, lipid peroxidation, alcohol and diabetic fatty liver, malnutrition, kidney, cirrhosis, gastrointestinal, neurological, lung, psoriasis, MS, cerebral circulation, elevated lipids, atherosclerosis, even drug enhancement. It is a thorough review of PC research published from 1959 to 1993, which portrays a positive image of PC quite the opposite as in the Nature study.

Using lecithin as a source of PC is a poor scientific approach because the phospholipids within lecithin are oil based. The PC used in the European studies was either egg PC, or, if soy lecithin based, the oil had been purged and the phospholipids were isolated. In the 1940s, Nattermann GMBH, successfully produced a high concentrated PC from lecithin in an oil free form called Phospholipon which was the source for the PC used in all the medical studies previously mentioned. The formation of the membrane occurs in water and cannot occur if the lipid tails of the phospholipids are immersed in oil. Oil and water do not mix, but oil and oil mix very well. All life on the planet is water based and depends on the “hydrophobic effect” to drive the formation of the membrane of all cells. There is little excuse for the continued PC / lecithin confusion or the implication of PC as a troublesome nutrient.

Under normal digestion, PC and all lipids ingested are degraded by lipases in the gut. The phospholipids and the triglycerides are reduced by enzymes PLC or PLD which attack the head groups (choline, ethanolamine, etc) with PLA1 or PLA2 doing the same for the lipid tails. The PC research reports referenced above did not use raw lecithin as a source of PC. The majority of the PC was either i.v. Essentiale (Aventis) or Lipostabil (Rhone Poulanc) or, as a PC capsule “Forte” under both labels. Forte is currently available in most European and Eastern European pharmacies, i.v. Essentiale is available in Eastern Europe and the US, all of which used phosphatidylcholine that originated from Nattermann, which, as already indicated, is no longer lecithin.

In the 2011 Nature paper by Wang et al, there are 18 listed authors from the Cleveland Clinic, UCLA, Cleveland State, and USC. It is appalling that such a prestigious journal, Nature, would permit such gross error in basic biochemistry. The article does indeed help to resolve the age-old problem of why lecithin has consistently failed to provide positive results as a phosphatidylcholine nutritional supplement, because it isn’t phosphatidyl choline. The implication of Choline and TMAO in CVD was also corroborated in a number of studies prior to the Nature study such as recent publications from Italy in 2005, UNC in 2007, Emory and Aventis in 2009 and from Germany in 2007 – 2010, to name a few. However, none of these publications mentioned lecithin or even PC as a critical choline source or of PC in promoting cardiovascular disease. In light of the abundant positive research for phosphatidyl choline for over half a century, the choice of the title in the April 2011 Nature paper borders on scientific ignorance and demands a retraction.

In the Nature study it is prudent to bear in mind that the laboratory animals were inbred strains, predisposed to CVD.

There is clear evidence that choline released from the cell membrane by ischemia-related cytolysis may be used as a predictor of cardiac events in the presence of chest pain, despite low levels of troponin. (Danne, 2007) In this regard, choline elevation is a result of tissue damage (vulnerable plaque), and is not a causative agent.

Specific gut bacteria will degrade choline to trimethylamine, which is then oxidized by the liver to TMAO. The liver enzyme, Hepatic Flavin Monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) is responsible for the conversion. (It may be important to note that this is a “flavin” enzyme, dependent upon riboflavin for its activity. Without further attention, it is unseemly to indict this B vitamin as part of the etiology of CVD.) TMAO—and its companion choline metabolite, betaine—promote upregulation of multiple macrophage scavenger receptors as part of the inflammatory cascade, following platelet activation and monocyte adhesion, but preceding the formation of macrophage foam cells from the endocytosis of oxidized LDL and the subsequent smooth muscle cell migration from vascular epithelium that forms protective fibrous caps. Foam cells that accrue from this phagocytosis comprise the fatty streaks of the plaques of atheroma in the vascular intima. Foam cells necrotize and cause the fibrous cap to rupture and form a thrombus which can lead to emboli capable of occluding smaller blood vessels.

Knowing that gut flora may generate a pro-atherosclerotic metabolite has aroused interest in probiotic research. Lactobacillus rhamnosus appears to potentiate the colonic manufacture of TMAO, while L. paracasei has inhibitory properties on the formation of TMAO. Both strains are dose-dependent. If the inflammation induced by TMAO can be eliminated, or at least curtailed, the number of related cardiac events can be limited. Disrupting the inflammatory cascade that provokes foam cell induction may be as simple as preventing the oxidation of LDL in the first place. Several dietary components have demonstrated the capability to prevent LDL oxidation, including capsaicin, curcumin, and several bioflavonoids.

The information contained in this web site is for educational purposes only and is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Inclusion here does not imply any endorsement or recommendation. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified medical provider for all medical problems prior to starting any new regiment.

In 1998, Crawford et al noted that “…natural dietary antioxidants inhibit both LDL oxidation and atherogenesis in animals with elevated LDL…”

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998 Sep;18(9):1506-13. Dietary antioxidants inhibit development of fatty streak lesions in the LDL receptor-deficient mouse. Crawford RS, Kirk EA, Rosenfeld ME, LeBoeuf RC, Chait A.

In 2005, Indian researchers identified the pepper constituent as cardiac friendly, when they announced, “Dietary capsaicin was found to be protective to the LDL oxidation…as indicated by reduction in TBARS by more than 40%.”

Mol Cell Biochem. 2005 Jul;275(1-2):7-13. Protective effect of dietary capsaicin on induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein in rats. Kempaiah RK, Manjunatha H, Srinivasan K.

Quercitin (a constituent of apples and onions) and curcumin (the active ingredient of turmeric) demonstrated the greatest effects in the prevention of LDL oxidation. Both are available as supplements.

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. Jan 2002; Vol 229, Num 1-2: pp. 19-23 Inhibition of human low density lipoprotein oxidation by active principles from spices K. Akhilender Naidu and N.B. Thippeswamy

Future treatment of CVD symptoms may include testing for TMAO, as well as for the traditional cardiac markers. Preventive measures, especially for individuals with a family history of heart disease, may address limiting choline intake, reducing gut bacterial load via broad spectrum antibiotics, and/or using probiotics designed to modulate intestinal ecology.

The highest sources of Choline are in liver, egg yolk, red meat, fish, milk, chicken, and peanuts while the highest source of Betaine is in dark bread, white bread, spinach, cold breakfast cereals, and pasta. So becoming a vegetarian or avoiding meat will not solve the problem of avoiding the formation of plaque if a gut infection is brewing.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
These products are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.

Taking A Peek Inside a Muscle Cramp

Cramping is one of the most common complaints of athletes. It can occur at any time but more often at the tail end of their workout. Cramps are a one way street in the complete cycle of muscle action. All body motion is controlled by the opening and closing of ion channels that sit in the membranes of all cells. Sodium (Na) contracts the cell and potassium (K) relaxes it. Similar action occurs to transmit a thought with Na and K triggering neurons (depolarizing) to both transmit and fire. In effect the electrolytes do it all. You can’t blink your eye or even see or hear without them.

A heart cell begins the process with Calcium (Ca) signaling the Na ion channel to open to begin the contraction cycle. There are hundreds of Na and K ion channels on each cell. A half second later Magnesium (Mg) encourages K to rush in which relaxes the cell. That’s the beat of your heart or the closing of your fist. With a heart cell the cycle is non stop; constrict with Na and relax with K. Its quite easy to see what happens when a muscle cramps. In essence you have half a beat. If a cramp hits your heart, you’re history, but in a different muscle you’ll hurt, but recover. If you’re swimming in a race half way home, it could be a disaster. Whenever it happens, it’s the guys in charge of the relaxing half of the cycle, Mg and K, that are missing.

Often, athletes who are pushing the envelope sense a tingling of sorts, in say a leg muscle, before it tightens. A swig of ElyteSport could be a G-D send at that moment because it contains a high concentration of both K and Mg. (Check out the exact numbers at – Compare Sport Drinks).

“ I don’t cramp any more!” We hear this from our elite athletes. All of them also say that they last longer. They don’t see an improvement in performance or time, but they are able to stay at a strong performance rate for a longer time. (Read Nicole and Ron’s comments on the athletes spotlight). I would argue that if you can train longer, the logic would be that you would also increase muscle mass, or improve the flow of nutrients to a more efficient level, which, over time makes you stronger and better. But I leave the proof to the performers.

Actually, what is happening, is that the high K concentration is sufficient to complete the back side of the heart beat, or leg pump, etc. Without those 2 electrolytes Mg and K, in plentiful supply, your muscles have only the first half of the action potential to work on. Over time, that’s a one way street, that can end up as a cramp. Cramps don’t usually occur when your doing sprints, they are the result of cellular stress (loss of electrolytes) over long workouts. What ElyteSport does is make sure that you have enough K and Mg to complete the back side of the muscle pump.

A number of coaches have tried “pickle juice” to prevent cramping in hot weather. Pickle juice is predominantly vinegar. Vinegar is acetic acid, and is used to remove sodium (Na) with individuals with high blood sodium levels. The coaches are lowering their athletes Na levels to prevent the first half of the muscle cycle instead of making sure that they have enough of all the electrolytes needed. Lower Na and you may not begin the cramp. Not exactly what the doctor ordered, but it can work.

However, you are removing Na to restore balance, instead of providing the correct electrolytes that the body needs at that moment, which is ……..Mg and K. Training logic says that you want as high a level of electrolytes as possible, all the time, not robbing one, Na, to achieve balance. ElyteSport is perfectly designed to address the problem of cramping, and very possibly, the big one after that, and that is the potential loss of an athlete that could not handle the extremes of temperature and high performance workouts. If you’re in training, a coach, or a trainer, you owe it to yourself and your athletes to check out ElyteSport.

The information contained in this web site is for educational purposes only and is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Inclusion here does not imply any endorsement or recommendation. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified medical provider for all medical problems prior to starting any new regiment.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
These products are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.

Leg Cramps (Night Cramps)

Leg cramps can be very painful and are fairly common. A leg cramp is a spasm that comes from a muscle in the leg. It usually occurs in one of the calf muscles below and behind the knee. Sometimes, the small muscles of the feet can be affected, as wells as the hands.

Typically, a cramp lasts a few minutes. In some cases, it lasts only seconds, but it can last for up to ten minutes. The muscle may remain tender after a severe leg cramp for as long as 24 hours. Leg cramps usually occur when you are resting – most commonly at night when in bed (night cramps). They may awaken you from your sleep and can become a distressing condition if your sleep is regularly disturbed.

Many people experience an occasional leg cramp but they do appear to be more common in older people. Approximately, one out of three people, over the age of 60, have regular leg cramps. This figure increases to around 50% for people over the age of 80.

There has been considerable uncertainty in the literature regarding the classification and nomenclature of muscle cramps. The term “cramp” is used to indicate a variety of clinical features of muscles, leading to its use as an imprecise “catch-all” term that includes stiffness, contractures and local pain. The cause is not known in most cases. However, working with high performing athletes has provided us with some insights into muscle function and the electrolytes that drive all muscle function.

Sodium Closes (constricts) and Potassium Opens (relaxes)

In essence, the closing and relaxing of a muscle is dependent on the four mineral horseman of function, calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K). Sodium constricts and potassium relaxes, with Ca and Mg initiating each phase of the action. If an individual is low in potassium, it appears that that singular event of low potassium can be sufficient to permit a cramp to occur. Without enough potassium available to complete the relaxing cycle, a random signal (or even a conscious one) to close by an out of balanced condition can leave almost any muscle in a locked position.

To understand sodium’s influence on the closing of a muscle and potassium’s role in engineering the reverse (the opening), it could be helpful, though somewhat macabre, to examine the procedure for executions. Generally, the act of hanging was replaced by electrocution, which was in turn abandoned by the painless, yet highly efficient act, of an injection of a high concentrated solution of potassium. Flooding the body with potassium forces all muscles to relax. Eventually the concentration of potassium becomes so high that it dwarfs the normal balance with sodium, thereby restricting any ability to affect a normal muscle function. The net result is to block the beating of the heart. In effect the prisoner relaxes to death.

Essentially an execution by injection is the reverse of a cramp. The execution is clearly an excess of potassium and the cramp appears to be the reverse. The injection of potassium overwhelms the normal balance of sodium and robs it of its ability to initiate muscle function; the body cannot begin any function, you couldn’t even blink your eye. The reverse of high sodium (or to be more precise, the absence of sufficient potassium) is an imbalance that sets up a condition for a cramp to occur. The poor individual with insufficient potassium on hand may not be able to relax that muscle and must message or stretch the knotted jumble of muscle to force some potassium into the cells to turn off the tight cramping condition.

The potential cure for a cramp would logically be to have available sufficient stores of potassium. However, magnesium also plays an important role in muscle function, so it is necessary to insure an adequate supply of magnesium. Calcium is also important, but there is a ready supply from our storehouse of bone which appears to be sufficient for muscle function. However, the supply of sufficient Ca and Mg as we age, is often insufficient, even though normal blood test results suggest there is enough. But, that is a subject beyond this current discussion of cramps.

The true details concerning when and why a cramp may occur is still a mystery. However, our work with a large number of athletes and our success with a concentrated electrolyte drink is worthy of investigation. Check out the ElyteSport’s testimonials where you will find a large number of former “ crampers” from many walks of life. Their comments in their own words searching to find an answer to stop those pesky cramps could hold your answer as well.

The information contained in this web site is for educational purposes only and is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Inclusion here does not imply any endorsement or recommendation. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified medical provider for all medical problems prior to starting any new regiment.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
These products are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.